What is Diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus is caused by the lack of insulin hormone secreted from the pancreas tissue as well as the blood sugar due to its inefficiency, as well as a small vascular disease. Type 1 diabetes usually begins with insulin deficiency before the age of 30. Insulin injections are needed. Type 2 diabetes is usually seen after 40 years of age, insulin deficiency in the body, or impaired use. Diet requires oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin injections in some patients. Diabetic retinopathy is the only curable complication of diabetes mellitus, caused by the influence of the veins of the retinal layer (reticular layer), a light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye, due to diabetes mellitus, leading to blindness. In general, both eyes are affected. At the onset of the disease, the patient may not have any complaints, and the findings may appear over time. The incidence of retinopathy in a patient with mild or severe diabetes mellitus is 40-45%. This rate may increase with the duration of the disease. Treatment of patients caught early is possible. For this reason, patients should have retinal examinations once a year even if they do not have any complaints. Examinations should be frequent during periods such as bulletin, pregnancy, cataract surgery, new insulin. Tight control of diabetes, control of insulin passage, blood lipid and cholesterol and other internal problems when necessary, leaving the cigarette slows down the progress of the disease but does not stop it. Therefore, even if blood sugar levels are very well controlled, retinal examinations should not be neglected. Rapid changes of blood sugar in diabetic patients may also lead to temporary blurred vision. Cataract formation is also more frequent than the normal collection. Occlusion of the small vessels of the optic nerve is a rare condition and is called optic neuropathy. This article will focus on diabetic retinopathy.


What are the stages of diabetic retinopathy?


1-Ground diabetic retinopathy: Small vessel dilatations (microaneurysm) with obstruction of the network vessels and walls, small infiltration of retinas into blood vessels, yellow deposits called hard exudates are seen. The most sensitive area of ??the retina, called the makam, is not affected unless it is affected.


2-Maculopathy: When the macular region vessels are affected by the time, the veins in this region are affected, and malnutrition (ischemia), liquid infiltration (edema), and bleeding and exudations affecting this region are affected. The patient is blurred and begins to complain without seeing too little.


3-Proliferative diabetic retinopathy: less common than other findings. In response to malnutrition (ischemia), the retina forms some signals and chemical substances and new blood vessels develop in undesired places. These new vessels cause dense bleeding (vitreous haemorrhage) into the eye, causing bleeding from the retinas (glare) and elevation of the eye's tension (glaucoma), caused by the stretching of the bands around the gelatinous vitreous that develops around them and fills the eye. These developments result in blindness.


What is retinal angiography and how is it applied?


Retinal angiography is based on the photographing of the retinal vascular system, which is indicated by the dye reaching the eye within 8 to 10 seconds, when a dye called fluorescein is given to one of 5cc arm veins. It is used for the diagnosis of retinal diseases and for the indication of the areas to be treated. It does not have the ability to open veins. No radiopaque material is used. There may be temporary nausea in some patients during the procedure. After the procedure, the color of the patient's skin turns yellow for up to 2 days, the color of the urine turns white. Very rarely the dye can cause allergies. It is not recommended for use in severe liver and kidney patients, pregnancies.